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Guidelines of the preparation of thesis


  1. Objectives

2.1. General Objective

The primary objective of this thesis is to provide students with a valuable opportunity to expand their knowledge within their field of study by applying and effectively integrating the theoretical knowledge acquired during their academic pursuits.

  1. Assignment of Tasks

3.1. Number of Students per Bachelor Thesis

Each thesis project is assigned to a single student or, in special cases, to a maximum of two (2) individuals working collaboratively.

3.2. Thesis Topics

The selection of the thesis topic is the responsibility of the student, with guidance and approval from the supervising professor.

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Course Planning for Thesis Preparation

During the initial meetings, a comprehensive course plan is developed to guide the preparation of the thesis. Before commencing the actual writing process, subsequent to the initial meetings and a thorough review of pertinent literature, the student is required to present a preliminary outline of their thesis to the supervising professor. This outline, essentially a table of contents for the thesis, serves as an essential roadmap.

It is important to note that this preliminary plan is not set in stone; rather, it is intended to be flexible and subject to modification as the research progresses and data is gathered. Nevertheless, establishing this framework from the outset is highly beneficial. It serves as a valuable reference for both acquiring the necessary literature and structuring the paper itself.

Throughout the course of the project, student-supervisor meetings are convened with the following objectives:

  • To update the supervisor on the project’s progress.
  • To address any challenges or issues encountered.
  • To receive guidance from the supervisor on the next steps.
  • To offer general support and mentorship to the student.

These meetings play a crucial role in ensuring the successful execution of the thesis project.

  1. Procedure for Organizing Graduate Theses

A graduate thesis is a unique creation, bound by specific principles and rules. It is not a freeform or literary text but rather adheres to distinct criteria. In thesis evaluation, greater emphasis is placed on adherence to procedures and regulations than on the author’s personal positions and opinions.

4.1. Stages of Graduate Thesis Development

The process of preparing a thesis unfolds in distinct stages:

STAGE I: Choice of Topic

Selecting a topic for the thesis is a crucial initial step. The student should consider personal interests, scientific pursuits, past experiences (related to their field of study or other endeavors), future plans, and the desire for further specialization. The final choice of topic may evolve during the research process, influenced by the available material (bibliographic sources), time, and resources at the student’s disposal. The supervising professor plays an essential role in guiding this decision.

Literature Review

Having a comprehensive understanding of both general and subject-specific bibliographies is imperative. Students are encouraged to update their general bibliography knowledge from previous coursework, while they should independently seek out and explore the specific bibliography relevant to their chosen topic. This process is an integral part of thesis preparation.

Choice of Type of Graduate Thesis

In addition to selecting a topic, students must determine the type of thesis they will undertake. This decision may be influenced by the nature of the chosen subject.

If the student opts for a theoretical study, the following steps should be taken:

  • Begin with a research question or identified problem.
  • Conduct a critical examination of relevant literature.
  • Draw specific conclusions in relation to the initial question or problem.
  • Compose the thesis in a manner that reflects the critical analysis of the literature and articulates the student’s own viewpoints and recommendations.

This structured approach ensures that the thesis is academically rigorous and aligns with the chosen type of work.

STAGE II: Gathering Material

At this stage, the student gathers the necessary material required for organizing the content of their work and subsequently writing it.

Collection of Material for Theoretical Studies

In the case of a theoretical study, the student is advised to:

  1. Identify various sources and utilize them to gather all necessary information for composing the thesis.
  2. Common methods for sourcing materials include:
    • Library research, including books and journals.
    • Exploring relevant bibliographic references found in aforementioned sources.
    • Online research.
    • Utilization of previous research.
    • Utilizing bibliographies.
  3. Cease the literature search when redundancy occurs or when authors become familiar.
  4. When photocopying articles or book chapters, document all necessary bibliographic information for later reference (authors’ names, publication date, article/chapter title, journal/book title, page numbers, volume and issue, place of publication, and publishing house).
  5. Implement an effective system for organizing and classifying the gathered information, either using a computer or physical notes.
  6. Notes taken and paraphrased information should fall into three categories:
    • Main points of articles or chapters.
    • Paraphrasing of key information.
    • Identical excerpts.
  7. Always analyze the literature critically based on the established subject axes, guided by the supervising professor.

Collection of Material for Empirical Research

In the case of empirical research, students are encouraged to follow this procedure:

  1. Identify a research subject.
  2. Formulate research aims and objectives.
  3. Review relevant literature, as mentioned in the previous section on gathering material for theoretical studies.
  4. Specify and finalize the research topic, objectives, and hypothesis formulation.
  5. Plan the research in detail, including the selection of tools, materials, and participant identification.
  6. Collect data following the finalized research design.
  7. Process the collected data. 

STAGE III: Writing a Paper


One of the significant challenges at this stage is deciding which of the collected information to include in the written work and where to include it. To address this, it is useful for the student to establish the goal of the work by answering two key questions: (a) “What am I trying to achieve?” and (b) “How can I better achieve my purpose?”

The process involves:

  1. Classifying collected material based on the work’s previously established plan from STAGE I, which may be modified based on the gathered material.
  2. Organizing information according to the individual sections of the work plan.
  3. The composition of the essay follows these stages:
    • Preliminary preparation based on the purpose and plan, without writing the introduction and conclusion yet, and without making a special effort for smooth transitions between sections.
    • Content-wise review: Rearrange paragraphs into a logical order, reinforce the work with examples, full excerpts, and additional information.
    • Structural review: Write the introduction and conclusion.
  4. Avoid including all collected information in the written work, as this could result in a mere accumulation of data rather than a structured scientific text. It’s essential to critically assess the gathered material and edit it accordingly for integration into the work.

The revised text emphasizes the significance of organizational structure and critical thinking in the research and writing process. It also underscores the importance of maintaining smooth transitions between sections and paragraphs, ensuring grammatical and editorial correctness, and verifying the accuracy of spelling and word usage.


“Components of a Thesis”

The text of the thesis comprises the following sections:

  1. Cover & Inside Cover

This section includes:

  • Name, registration number of the author(s), thesis title, and date of writing, all centered on the page.
  • The institution’s name where the thesis was prepared, written in bold letters (size 16 points) at the page’s top.
  • The thesis title, one-third down from the page’s top, followed immediately by the word “Thesis” in 14-point bold letters.
  • Details of the author(s) below the title, and beneath that, the name of the supervising professor, designated as “Supervisor: Name, Surname, capacity,” using 14-point regular letters.
  • The thesis’s completion date, in 16-point bold letters, at the end of the page.
  1. Table of Contents

This is a comprehensive list of the work’s contents, mirroring the Table of Contents in this guide.

III. Introduction

The introduction is a concise text, not exceeding two to three pages, where the author presents:

  • What will be presented.
  • Why they are presenting it.
  1. Main Body

The main text of the paper is organized into sections with headings and subheadings. Here, the author elaborates on the thematic axes based on the work plan. It is essential to properly cite sources from which information within the text is derived.

  1. Conclusion/Epilogue

This section, limited to no more than two (2) pages, serves to:

  • Summarize the key points presented.
  • Assess the significance of the presented topics.
  • Formulate conclusions and critiques.
  • Provide a brief reference to the practical and theoretical significance of the subject. This section includes information the author wishes to leave with the readers.
  1. Bibliography

This section lists the bibliographic sources used in the paper, presented in alphabetical order. Ensure that all references in the text correspond to entries in the bibliography.

VII. Appendix

The appendix contains additional materials that cannot be included in the main text but are deemed useful for the reader, such as supplementary texts, laws, questionnaires, etc.


Special attention should be given to the way sources are referenced within the text and back to the bibliography, as it is a quality criterion of the work:

  • Within the text, direct quotations from a source are placed in quotation marks, followed by parentheses containing the author(s) name(s), publication date, and page number.
  • Maintain logical flow and smooth transitions between sections and paragraphs.
  • Each paragraph should convey a single main idea.
  • Properly document positions and opinions presented in the text, differentiating between the author’s perspective and those of other authors.
  • Develop the problem comprehensively and clearly to ensure understanding by a broad scientific audience.
  • Avoid verbosity and quoting irrelevant information solely to fill pages.
  • Use concise language, with special attention to vocabulary.
  • The thesis should have a minimum of 50 pages (when prepared by one student) and 80 pages (when prepared by two students).
  • Printing specifications: A4 paper, 12-point font size, 1.5-line spacing, and one page per sheet.

VII. Appendix: The appendix serves as a supplement to the thesis, accommodating content that cannot be included in the main text but is deemed valuable to readers, such as supplementary texts, legal documents, questionnaires, etc.

References: It is essential to address the manner in which sources are referenced in the text and linked back to the bibliography, as this is a critical aspect of the thesis’s quality. Within the text, direct quotations from a source are enclosed in quotation marks. Following the quotation, parentheses include the author’s name(s), publication date, and page number. Striving to minimize such direct quotations is advisable. Attention should be directed to the following key points:

  • The text should maintain logical sequencing, ensuring smooth transitions between units and paragraphs without abrupt discontinuities.
  • Each paragraph should succinctly convey a single main idea.
  • Positions and viewpoints presented in the text must be rigorously documented, distinguishing the author’s perspective from those of other researchers.
  • The writing style should reflect the author’s unique voice and comprehension of the gathered information.
  • The problem’s development should exhibit adequate breadth and clarity to make it accessible to a broad scientific audience.
  • Avoid verbosity and the inclusion of irrelevant information solely for the purpose of extending the document’s length.
  • Language should be concise, with particular attention to vocabulary and terminology.

Size of the Thesis: The minimum length for a thesis is typically 50 pages for single-authored theses and 80 pages for those authored by two students.

Printing of the Graduate Thesis: Theses should be printed on A4 paper, with a font size of 12 points (12pt) and one-and-a-half (1.5) line spacing. Each page should contain a single side of printed text.

STAGE IV: Presentation of Work:

When presenting the thesis orally, the student should consider the following:

  • The oral presentation differs from the written one in terms of organization and delivery.
  • Focus on one or two primary themes of the work and establish connections with the main topic.
  • A basic presentation plan might involve stating what will be presented, presenting it, and summarizing what has been presented.
  • Avoid excessive details; aim to pique the audience’s interest.
  • Refrain from reading the presentation verbatim but rely on written notes (preferably on tabs) as a guide.
  • Rehearse the presentation in advance to ensure a smooth and confident delivery.
  • Utilize visual materials that are easily visible to the audience without overwhelming them with information.

Examining Bachelor’s Theses Submission of Bachelor’s Theses: Theses should be submitted to the supervising professor (not in their final form) at least twenty (20) days before the submission deadline for any necessary corrections. Throughout the preparation process, students have the option to submit portions of the thesis for review and feedback.

5.2 Review Committee: During the graduation thesis presentation, the thesis is presented to a three-member committee, utilizing departmental resources such as slide projectors or PowerPoint presentations. Each student’s presentation typically lasts 10-15 minutes, followed by a 10-minute question-and-answer session.

5.4 Scoring: Each committee member independently evaluates the thesis, and the average score from the three assessors determines the final thesis score. The possibility of re-evaluation is limited to cases of incomplete presentations and is allowed only once. The evaluation considers factors such as the ability to manage and prepare the topic, originality, utilization of research tools, depth of the literature review, comprehension of literature, derivation of original conclusions, presentation quality, and responses to committee questions.


  • Proficient analysis of the topic.
  • Appropriate length.
  • Articulates clear positions, ideas, and opinions.
  • Takes a distinct position.
  • Correct and well-utilized bibliographic references.


  • Comprehensive division of the subject into primary aspects.
  • Maintains a clear and logical line of reasoning.
  • Establishes connections between essential components of the study.
  • Paragraphs convey fundamental and complete ideas.
  • Smooth transitions between paragraphs.


  • Consistent use of accurate scientific terminology.
  • Clarity in expression.
  • Correct syntax.
  • Proper spelling.


  • The work represents an original composition.

Bibliography: The instructions for preparing the thesis, as outlined in the preceding sections, have been adapted from the texts referenced in the bibliography to meet the requirements of the International and European Economic Studies department at the University of Western Macedonia.

American Psychological Association (1991). Publication Manual of the American

Psychological Association (3rd edition). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.